The Key to Beethoven
Paul M. Ellison
Building on the remarkable correlation between key and tonal affect found in his vocal music, this book establishes an understanding of the way in which Beethoven uses tonality affectively. Following an Introduction that outlines a justification for revisiting the concept of meaning in BeethovenпїЅs music, Chapter One assembles the historical case for BeethovenпїЅs knowledge of key characteristics, examining materials with which he was familiar, his own views, and various items of anecdotal evidence. The second chapter presents a survey of the keys employed by Beethoven, using evidence from contemporary writers, theorists, composers, and BeethovenпїЅs own works to establish congruency of affective meaning. Chapters Three to Five identify the significant body of empirical evidence that connects tonality and meaning in an examination of the solo songs, revealing the strong nexus between textual meaning and choice of key in almost all cases. Concepts such as the пїЅaffective spectrum,пїЅ пїЅaffective modulation and tonicization,пїЅ and пїЅaffective harmonyпїЅ are introduced and applied to the music. The sixth chapter examines five case studies from vocal and choral music with orchestral accompaniment, in order to illustrate how tonal symbolism can function in a wider variety of contexts in BeethovenпїЅs oeuvre. Finally, Chapter Seven presents an instrumental case study, the Piano Sonata in D Minor, Op. 31, No. 2, applying the semiotic of affect established earlier as the principal tool for deconstructing meaning in this work. This is the first volume to demonstrate through a combination of historical and empirical evidence that, in most instances, Beethoven does employ tonality in an affective way in his vocal music, paving the way for a future examination of the nexus between tonality and meaning his instrumental music.
Paul M. Ellison:
Native of Liverpool, UK, and was educated at the Royal Academy of Music, Queens’ College, Cambridge, and Cardiff University, where he was awarded a Ph.D in 2010. Since 1988 he has lived in the USA, and is currently lecturer in musicology at San Francisco State University. He is also a contributor of articles, program annotations and liner notes to various publications and recently edited Dear Max/Lieber Malcolm: The Rudolf/Frager Correspondence for Pendragon Press which was published in July 2010. He has taught at San JosпїЅ State University, and is associate editor of The Beethoven Journal, the periodical of the American Beethoven Society. In July 2010, he was appointed editor of The Journal of the Association of Anglican Musicians. A professional church musician, he is director of music at the Church of the Advent of Christ the King, San Francisco’s historic Anglo-Catholic parish. Among the interesting highlights of his career Paul has performed for HRH The Prince Charles at Trinity College, Cambridge, directed the music at the weddings of actor Julian Sands and director Michael Attenborough and funerals of actor Leonard Rossiter and the Marquesa de Casa Maury (Freda Dudley Ward, sometime mistress of King Edward VIII).